Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of Universities (Public and Private), Polytechnics, Monotechnics, and Colleges of education. Owobi Angrew, "Tiptoeing Through A Constitutional Minefield: The Great Sharia Controversy in Nigeria", Rais Akhtar; Health Care Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 264. Bioye Tajudeen Aluko and Abdul–Rasheed Amidu, Epiphany Azinge, "The Right to Vote in Nigeria: A Critical Commentary on the Open Ballot System,". The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The NigeriaSat-2 spacecraft alone was built at a cost of over £35 million. Diese Hauptwasserquelle gab dem Staat den Namen, und der Name kann übersetzt werden als «Großer Fluss», «Fluss der Flüsse». [193] Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and accounts for about 17% of the continent's total population as of 2017; however, exactly how populous is a subject of speculation. [94] This ended almost 33 years of military rule from 1966 until 1999, excluding the short-lived second republic (between 1979 and 1983) by military dictators who seized power in coups d'état and counter-coups during the Nigerian military juntas of 1966–1979 and 1983–1999. The area near the border with Cameroon close to the coast is rich rainforest and part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion, an important centre for biodiversity. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}A vast, arid state on the edge of the Sahara desert, Niger is rated by the UN as one of the world's least-developed nations. [221] However, these estimates should be taken with caution because sample data is mostly collected from major urban areas in the south, which are predominantly Christian. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods. [164] The most productive region of the nation is the coastal Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta or "South-south" region which encompasses 78 of the 159 oil fields. The satellite was launched from Russia on 27 September 2003. Looking back, in the year of 1960, the United Kingdom had a population of 52.2 million people. [87], General Buhari was overthrown in 1985 military coup d'état led by General Ibrahim Babangida, who established the Armed Forces Ruling Council and became military president and commander in chief of the armed forces. Population Pyramids: WORLD - 2019. seventh most populous country in the world, pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate, National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons, Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–99, Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution, February 1976 coup against Nigeria's government, Nigerian military juntas of 1966–1979 and 1983–1999, Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta, Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Economic Community of West African States, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency, Nigeria is the seventh most populous country in the world, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by 2014 most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft. Bei der Volkszählung 1977 hatte … Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is plains of tall grass interrupted by trees. Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community. [218], An 18 December 2012 report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center stated that in 2010, 49.3 percent of Nigeria's population was Christian, 48.8 percent was Muslim, and 1.9 percent were followers of indigenous and other religions, or unaffiliated. [175] Ogun is considered to be Nigeria's current industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos. [172] Lagos has become an important location for African and "black" cultural identity. The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree. Journalists face difficulties, including detention or prosecution over critical reporting. The world bank states Nigeria has had a 7.4% economic growth in July, 2019 which has been their highest yet since the gross domestic product rate decreased to 2%. Other Nigerian writers and poets who are well known internationally include John Pepper Clark, Ben Okri, Cyprian Ekwensi, Buchi Emecheta, Helon Habila, T. M. Aluko, Isaac Delano, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Daniel O. Fagunwa, Femi Osofisan and Ken Saro Wiwa, who was executed in 1995 by the military regime. [127] This has resulted in a serious trade imbalance, with Nigeria importing ten times more than it exports to China. 2010 - A new constitution designed to restore civilian rule approved in referendum; Mahamadou Issoufou becomes president in 2011. ", OQTM – Nigeria celebrates 'greatest' victory, "Nigeria bobsled women qualify for Winter Olympics", "Why Nigeria produces Scrabble champions", "And The No. The 30-month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January 1970. In addition to its petroleum resources, Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc. Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa. Waste management presents problems in a mega city like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development, population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste. [299], There are many festivals in Nigeria, some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society. Nicole Rupp, Peter Breunig & Stefanie Kahlheber, ". [82] Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: states creation and national delimitation, local government reforms and the constitutional drafting committee of the Second Nigerian Republic.[83]. [297][298], T.B. [191] As of 2017, the population stood at 191 million. [88], Babangida survived the 1990 Nigerian coup d'état attempt, then postponed a promised return to democracy to 1992. The results of the most recent census were released in December 2006 and gave a population of 140,003,542. In Ländern wie Uganda und Niger ist das sogar rund die Hälfte. Der Sahelstaat gilt als politisch chronisch instabil, nachdem er vor 60 Jahren von Frankreich unabhängig wurde. In 2010, thousands of people were inadvertently exposed to lead-containing soil / ore from informal gold mining within the northern state of Zamfara. Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with developed countries, notably the United States, and with developing countries. The US has a significant military presence in the country, intended to combat Islamist militants. Eight major fashion looks for 2021, 'Iraq's ghost militias have got me on their hit-list', A decision that changed my family's story, Quarantine meals: The 2020 trend no-one predicted, Striking news photos from around the world in 2020, .css-q4by3k-IconContainer{display:none;height:1em;width:1em;vertical-align:-0.125em;margin-right:0.25em;}play'We need to learn life lessons from this' Video'We need to learn life lessons from this', BBC Future: The year defined in 37 objects, How China silenced voices and rewrote Covid history, .css-orcmk8-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;}Luke Letlow: Newly-elected US lawmaker, 41, dies from Covid.css-1dedj2h-Rank{-webkit-align-self:center;-ms-flex-item-align:center;align-self:center;color:#B80000;margin-left:3.125rem;}1, Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine approved for use in UK2, China Covid-19: Nearly 500,000 in Wuhan may have had virus, says study3, Quarantine meals: The 2020 food trend no-one predicted4, Tesla: Soaring share price creates army of 'Teslanaires'5, Argentina abortion: Senate votes in favour of legalisation6, Harry and Meghan say 'love wins' in first podcast from Spotify deal7, Alexei Navalny: Russian officials bring new fraud charges8, What my grandfather's life taught me about China and America9, Fashion lookahead: Eight major 2021 looks from tie-dye to pastels10. He legalized the formation of political parties, and formed the two-party system with the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National Republican Convention (NRC) ahead of the 1992 general elections. Der Name Tuareg hat sich seit der Kolonialzeit im deutschen, frankophonen und angloamerikanischen Sprachraum eingebürgert. This is in support of the doctrine sometimes called Pax Nigeriana. Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1960, as the Federation of Nigeria, while retaining the British monarch, Elizabeth II, as nominal head of state and Queen of Nigeria. Colonel Emeka Ojukwu declared the region independent from the federation as a state called the Republic of Biafra, under his leadership. The total population in the United Kingdom was estimated at 66.7 million people in 2019, according to the latest census figures. 1960 - Niger becomes independent but a severe drought devastates the country, which enters a period of political instability and coups. Die Tuareg selbst bezeichnen sich nicht mit diesem Namen. [216] The majority of Quranists follow the Kalo Kato or Quraniyyun movement. A visiting Nigerian Senator reported that all the primary and post-primary schools, health centres, worship centres as well as the police station in the area were destroyed. [258] The rioting erupted after Muslims in the country reacted in anger to comments made by a newspaper reporter. ", sfnm error: no target: CITEREFIliffe2011 (, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFErfler2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFErfler2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFIliffe2011 (, African Concord (1990). Allein schon die Expeditionen machen süchtig da man seinen Zoo wie auch das Museum vervollständigen möchte. Other major slaving ports in Nigeria were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin and on Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra. The country has a judicial branch, with the highest court being the Supreme Court of Nigeria. [256] These scams involve a complicit Nigerian bank (the laws being set up loosely to allow it) and a scammer who claims to have money he needs to obtain from that bank. [80] After the coup attempt, General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed military head of state. Im Deutschen verwenden wir die meisten Ländernamen ohne Artikel, einige jedoch mit. [306] In 2015, Wellington Jighere became the first African player to win World Scrabble Championship. Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.4%. It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank,[151] with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. In 1983 the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country". However, studies have also investigated the growth of indigenous trees in with that of exotic species. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine approved for use in UK. Waste management including sewage treatment, the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation, and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria. The prevalence of wasting is typically highest across Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, with countries such as India, Sri Lanka, Djibouti, Sudan and Niger recording some of the highest levels (greater than 15 percent). In 2015, there was a federal ban. Its coastline is at least 853 km (530 mi). In 1903, the British-victory in the Battle of Kano gave them a logistical edge in pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate and parts of the former Bornu Empire. Mapping our place in the world: The atlas for the 21st century. Your full name; Biographic details, such as a photograph of yourself, and a copy of the biographic page of your passport How you got the information you want to share with CIA; How to contact you, including your home address and phone number; We cannot guarantee a response to every message. Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which it joined in July 1971. 1. Kennis Music, the self-proclaimed number-one record label in Africa, and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip-hop artists. Die Rallye Dakar führte im Januar 1985 über Tchintabaraden. [16][17][18] It has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with nearly half its population under the age of eighteen. It is habitat for the drill monkey, which is found in the wild only in this area and across the border in Cameroon. [303] Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions. Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye, and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January 1852. Candidates with a minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND) and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with a minimum of 5O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs. But nowadays with more education available to the public, Nigerian women are taking steps to have more active roles in the public, and with the help of different initiatives, more businesses are being started by women. There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization. Tension rose between North and South; Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region. The United States is the country's largest foreign investor. The British appointed Muhammadu Attahiru II as the new Caliph. Imbalances between North and South were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. [73][74], Following the war, Nigeria enjoyed the oil boom of the 1970s, during which the country joined OPEC and received huge oil revenues. [84][85] In August 1983 Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory, with a majority of seats in the National Assembly and control of 12 state governments. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", "The Economic Development of Nigeria from 1914 to 2014", "Nigcomsat-1 Program – In-Orbit Delivery Program – Communications Satellite – CGWIC", "Nigcomsat-1 Program – In-Orbit Delivery Program – Communications Satellite", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan urges birth control, "World Population TO INCREASE BY 2.6 BILLION OVER NEXT 45 YEARS, WITH ALL GROWTH OCCURRING IN LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS", "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat", "The Demographic Divide: What It Is and Why It Matters", "The 10 Most Populated Countries in Africa", "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration", "Why white Zimbabwean farmers plan to stay in Nigeria", "Africa :: Nigeria — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Percentages By Religion of the 1952 and 1963 Populations of Nigeria's Present 36 States", "Kano Seeks Supremacy of Sharia Over Constitution", "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages", "The Future of the Global Muslim Population", "Table: Christian Population in Numbers by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project", "Nigeria: a secular or multi religious state – 2", "The Middle Belt Movement and the Formation of Christian Consciousness in Colonial Northern Nigeria. Der Name Tchintabaraden kommt aus dem Tamaschek und bedeutet „Tal der Mädchen“. To the southeast of the Benue are hills and mountains, which form the Mambilla Plateau, the highest plateau in Nigeria. These players include Basketball Hall of Famer Hakeem Olajuwon, and later NBA draft picks Solomon Alabi, Yinka Dare, Obinna Ekezie, Festus Ezeli, Al-Farouq Aminu and Olumide Oyedeji. The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo, Ogun State), which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status. In 1995, an estimated 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism. Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. ^ The Latin name Sacrum Imperium (Holy Empire) is documented as far back as 1157. His regime was overthrown by another military coup in 1985. Eine junge Bevölkerung geht auf hohe Fertilitätsrate in vielen Entwicklungsländern zurück, die zum Teil auf ungewollten Schwangerschaften basiert. [300] The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation has been working with the states to upgrade the traditional festivals, which may become important sources of tourism revenue. The spacecraft was operated by NigComSat and the Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency. [58], A changing legal imperative (transatlantic slave trade outlawed by Britain in 1807) and economic imperative (a desire for political and social stability) led most European powers to support the widespread cultivation of agricultural products, such as the palm, for use in European industry. [215] Kano State has sought to incorporate Sharia law into its constitution. Independent Nigeria's founding government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Northern People's Congress (NPC) led by Sir Ahmadu Bello, a party dominated by Muslim Northerners, and the Igbo and Christian-dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) led by Nnamdi Azikiwe. Argentina is one of the largest economies in South America. Zwei von fünf Menschen in den am wenigsten entwickelten Ländern sind unter 15 Jahre alt. ", "Economic and Financial Crimes Commission – EFCC – Home", "2002:Riots force Miss World out of Nigeria", "Nigeria: We Are Responsible for Borno Killings, Says Boko Haram", "Suspected Boko Haram fighters kill 65 in attack on funeral in Nigeria", "Islamic State group in Nigeria kills 20 soldiers, displaces 1,000 people", "Nigeria: Hundreds killed and churches burned in latest Fulani massacre", "Death toll from northwest Nigeria attack doubles to 130", "Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women", "Failure to pass equality bill betrays Nigerian women, activists say", "Refworld – Nigeria: Prevalence of forced marriage, particularly in Muslim and Yoruba communities; information on legislation, including state protection; ability of women to refuse a forced marriage", "Nigeria's child brides: 'I thought being in labour would never end, "Nigeria: Child brides facing death sentences a decade after child marriage prohibited", "Women and Land Rights Reforms in Nigeria", "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) – Data", "Nigeria's female genital mutilation ban is important precedent, say campaigners", "In Nigeria, neglected women bear the shame of fistulas", "Women and the Informal Sector in Nigeria: Implications for Development", "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death", "Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships, "Shocking photos of starving 'witch' toddler inspire massive donations", "AP/CNN: MTV launches first-ever African music award show", "Nigerian films try to move upmarket: Nollywood's new scoreboard", "Toronto: Nigerians disagree over new Nollywood", "Hello Nollywood: how Nigeria became Africa's biggest economy overnight", "Nollywood helps Nigeria kick South Africa's economic butt", "TB Joshua – 21st Century Prophet in Our Midst? [12] Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims, who live mostly in the north, and Christians, who live mostly in the south. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of Traditional African religions and other religions. [118] In 2015, incumbent President Muhammadu Buhari said corrupt officials have stolen $150 billion from Nigeria in the last 10 years. Since 2002, the country has seen sectarian violence by Boko Haram, a movement that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia law in the country. [220], The 2010 census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that 48.8% of the total population was Christian, slightly larger than the Muslim population of 43.4%, while 7.5% were members of other religions. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. In late November 2006, it organised an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts. [226] The middle belt of Nigeria contains the largest number of minority ethnic groups in Nigeria, who were found to be mostly Christians and members of traditional religions, with a small proportion of Muslims. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is a mix of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and a small population of Igbo Jews. [187] The satellite eventually failed after losing power on 11 November 2008. The Kano Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, with other major Hausa cities (or Hausa Bakwai) of: Daura, Hadeija, Kano, Katsina, Zazzau, Rano, and Gobir all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. This is one of the world's largest river deltas, and the location of a large area of Central African mangroves. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, followed by a succession of democratically-elected civilian governments and military dictatorships, until achieving a stable democracy in 1999; the 2015 presidential election was the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election. First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. In 1864, Samuel Ajayi Crowther became the first African bishop of the Anglican Church.[59]. In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining forces of Attahiru I and killed him; by 1906 resistance to British rule had ended. The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue, which converge and empty into the Niger Delta. [305], In the early 1990s, Scrabble was made an official sport in Nigeria. Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System. [106], Nigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States,[107] with executive power exercised by the President. Since the end of the civil war in 1970, some ethnic violence has persisted. [160], Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. Also see the Terminology note. Nigeria also supported several Pan-African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding opposition to the minority governments of Portuguese Mozambique, and Rhodesia. [124], In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Nigeria, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region. Im Niger, dem ärmsten Land der Erde, braucht eine halbe Million Kinder dringend Hilfe, um zu überleben, warnt das Kinderhilfswerk Unicef. Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary production. 1 Scrabble Nation In The World Is ...", "Black China: Africa's First Superpower Is Coming Sooner Than You Think", Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Official website, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD), List of countries by English-speaking population, List of countries where English is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nigeria&oldid=996994337, English-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1960, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2020, Articles needing additional references from July 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 14:50.